Topological maps model the environment as a graph, where nodes are distinctive places of the environment and edges indicate topological relationships between them. They represent an interesting alternative to the classic metric maps, due to their simplicity and storage needs, what has made topological mapping and localization an active research area. The different solutions that have been proposed during years have been designed around several kinds of sensors. However, in the last decades, vision approaches have emerged because of the technology improvements and the amount of useful information that a camera can provide. In this paper, we review the main solutions presented in the last fifteen years, and classify them in accordance to the kind of image descriptor employed. Advantages and disadvantages of each approach are thoroughly reviewed and discussed.